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Comparison: WDAR – WCAG 2.0 with WDAR as Basis

Manila ICT/WDAR WCAG 2.0
MS 1 – 1 – Provide an Access Instruction page for visitors explaining the accessibility features of the web site. Put an e-mail hyperlink for visitors to communicate web page accessibility problems. Guideline 3.5.2 Step 5.b: Provide an Accessibility Evaluation Statement (optional)
MS 1 – 2 – Avoid using words such as "This" or "Click Here" in creating links.
Use descriptive hyperlinks to support text browsers.

Guideline 2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context): The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. (Level A)

2.4.8 Link Purpose (Link Only): A mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. (Level AAA)

MS 1 – 3 – Attach ALT<alt> (alternative) text to graphic images so that assistive computer technology such as screen readers can reach the content.

  • Controls, Input: If non-text content is a control or accepts user input, then it has a namethat describes its purpose.

  • Time-Based Media: If non-text content is time-based media, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

  • Test: If non-text content is a test or exercise that would be invalid if presented in text, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

  • Sensory: If non-text content is primarily intended to create a specific sensory experience, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

  • CAPTCHAIf the purpose of non-text content is to confirm that content is being accessed by a person rather than a computer, then text alternatives that identify and describe the purpose of the non-text content are provided, and alternative forms of CAPTCHA using output modes for different types of sensory perception are provided to accommodate different disabilities.

  • Decoration, Formatting, Invisible: If non-text content is pure decoration, is used only for visual formatting, or is not presented to users, then it is implemented in a way that it can be ignored by assistive technology.

Guideline 1.4.9 Images of Text (No Exception): Images of text are only used for pure decoration or where a particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed. (Level AAA)

Note: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.

Guideline 1.4.9 Images of Text (No Exception): Images of text are only used for pure decoration or where a particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed. (Level AAA)

Note: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.

Guideline 2.1.1 Keyboard: All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user’s movement and not just the endpoints. (Level A)

Note 1: This exception relates to the underlying function, not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input technique (handwriting) requires path-dependent input but the underlying function (text input) does not.

Note 2: This does not forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation.

Guideline 2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context):The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. (Level A)

MS 1 – 4 – Provide a "D" hyperlink to a page providing descriptive text of photographs that contribute meaningful content to the page. None
MS 1 – 5 – Provide text transcriptions or descriptions for all audio and video clips.

1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded): For prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-onlymedia, the following are true, except when the audio or video is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such: (Level A)

  • Prerecorded Audio-only: An alternative for time-based media is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded audio-only content.

  • Prerecorded Video-only: Either an alternative for time-based media or an audio track is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded video-only content.

1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded): An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is amedia alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. (Level A)

1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded): Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content insynchronized media. (Level AA)

1.2.7 Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded): Where pauses in foreground audio are insufficient to allowaudio descriptions to convey the sense of the video, extended audio description is provided for allprerecorded video content in synchronized media. (Level AAA)

1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded): Captions are provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. (Level A)

1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded): An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is amedia alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. (Level A)

1.2.4 Captions (Live): Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media. (Level AA)

1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded): Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content insynchronized media. (Level AA)

1.2.7 Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded): Where pauses in foreground audio are insufficient to allowaudio descriptions to convey the sense of the video, extended audio description is provided for allprerecorded video content in synchronized media. (Level AAA)

Additional Notes:

1.2.9 Audio-only (Live): An alternative for time-based media that presents equivalent information for liveaudio-only content is provided. (Level AAA)

MS 1 – 6 – Provide alternative mechanisms for online forms such as e-mail or voice/TTY phone numbers since forms are not supported by all browsers. None
MS 1 – 7 – Avoid access barriers like: PDF files with no equivalent HTML or ASCII files, non-linear page formats, frame formats and content that requires user to download software to access it. Guideline 1.3.1 Info and Relationships:Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A)

Guideline 4.1.2 Name, Role, Value: For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies. (Level A)

Note: This success criterion is primarily for Web authors who develop or script their own user interface components. For example, standard HTML controls already meet this success criterion when used according to specification.


Additional Notes:

MS 2 – 1 – For ALT texts:
   2 – 1.1 – Decorative images must contain null ALT text or ALT="".
   2 – 1.2 – Anchor elements within the Image Maps must contain ALT texts.
   2 – 1.3 – Alternate texts that require more than 80 characters must instead be changed to "D" hyperlink.

  • Controls, Input: If non-text content is a control or accepts user input, then it has a namethat describes its purpose.

  • Time-Based Media: If non-text content is time-based media, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

  • Test: If non-text content is a test or exercise that would be invalid if presented in text, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

  • Sensory: If non-text content is primarily intended to create a specific sensory experience, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

  • CAPTCHAIf the purpose of non-text content is to confirm that content is being accessed by a person rather than a computer, then text alternatives that identify and describe the purpose of the non-text content are provided, and alternative forms of CAPTCHA using output modes for different types of sensory perception are provided to accommodate different disabilities.

  • Decoration, Formatting, Invisible: If non-text content is pure decoration, is used only for visual formatting, or is not presented to users, then it is implemented in a way that it can be ignored by assistive technology.

Guideline 1.4.5 Images of Text: If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text except for the following: (Level AA)

  • Customizable: The image of text can be visually customized to the user’s requirements;

  • Essential: A particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.

Note: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.

MS 2 – 2 – Provide a Site Map with a link appearing on every page.

Guideline 2.4.5 Multiple Ways: More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process. (Level AA)

Additional Notes:

Guideline 3.3.5 Help: Context-sensitive help is available. (Level AAA)

MS 2 – 3 – All pages must provide a link back to the home page. Guideline 2.4.8 Location: Information about the user’s location within a set of Web pages is available. (Level AAA)

Guideline 2.4.10 Section Headings: Section headings are used to organize the content. (Level AAA)

Note 1: "Heading" is used in its general sense and includes titles and other ways to add a heading to different types of content.

Note 2: This success criterion covers sections within writing, not user interface components. User Interface components are covered under Success Criterion 4.1.2.

This checkpoint is not required by any Success Criterion in WCAG 2.0. It is a possible strategy to addressSuccess Criterion 2.4.5 (Level AA). If navigation bars are used, Success Criterion 3.2.3 (Level AA) applies.

Guideline 3.2.3 Consistent Navigation: Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user. (Level AA)

Guideline 3.2.4 Consistent Identification: Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently. (Level AA)

MS 2 – 4 – Use Access keys in creating shortcuts to important links and form
controls.
Accesskeys are no longer required for conformance to WCAG 2.0. It is an advisory item: Providing access keys (advisory technique for Success Criterion 2.4.1 (Level A).
MS 2 – 5 – Provide a "Skip to Content" link in every page. Guideline 2.4.1 Bypass Blocks: A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages. (Level A)


Additional Notes:

  • In WCAG 2.0, this requirement applies only to groups that are repeated on multiple delivery units.

Guideline 2.4.9 Link Purpose (Link Only):mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. (Level AAA)

MS 2 – 6 – Make the language that you use in your web site easy to understand.

Guideline 3.1.1 Language of Page: The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined. (Level A)

Guideline 3.1.2 Language of Parts: The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text. (Level AA)

Note: This requirement does not apply to individual words or phrases that have become part of the primary language of the content.

Guideline 3.1.5 Reading Level: When text requires reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level after removal of proper names and titles, supplemental content, or a version that does not require reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level, is available. (Level AAA)

MS 2 – 7 – Do not use blinking, rolling or scrolling markup tags on your web pages.

Guideline 2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold: Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds. (Level A)

Note: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user’s ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.

Guideline 2.3.2 Three Flashes: Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period. (Level AAA)

2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide: For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true: (Level A)

  • Moving, blinking, scrolling: For any moving, blinking or scrolling information that (1) starts automatically, (2) lasts more than five seconds, and (3) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it unless the movement, blinking, or scrolling is part of an activity where it is essential; and

  • Auto-updating: For any auto-updating information that (1) starts automatically and (2) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it or to control the frequency of the update unless the auto-updating is part of an activity where it is essential.

Note 1: For requirements related to flickering or flashing content, refer to Guideline 2.3.

Note 2: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user’s ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.

Note 3: Content that is updated periodically by software or that is streamed to the user agent is not required to preserve or present information that is generated or received between the initiation of the pause and resuming presentation, as this may not be technically possible, and in many situations could be misleading to do so.

Note 4: An animation that occurs as part of a preload phase or similar situation can be considered essential if interaction cannot occur during that phase for all users and if not indicating progress could confuse users or cause them to think that content was frozen or broken.

MS 2 – 8 – Provide a LABEL text and ALT text on the input elements of your forms.

User agents now support explicit associations of labels with form controls, so the "until user agents" clause has been satisfied. This is therefore no longer a requirement under WCAG 2.0.

"Positioning labels to maximize predictability of relationships (future link)" is listed as an advisory technique for Success Criterion 1.3.1 (Level A).

Guideline 1.3.1 Info and Relationships: Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A)

Guideline 2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context):The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. (Level A)

Guideline 2.4.6 Headings and Labels:Headings and labels describe topic or purpose. (Level AA)

Guideline 2.4.9 Link Purpose (Link Only):mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. (Level AAA)

Guideline 3.3.2 Labels or Instructions: Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. (Level A)

Guideline 4.1.2 Name, Role, Value: For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies. (Level A)

Note: This success criterion is primarily for Web authors who develop or script their own user interface components. For example, standard HTML controls already meet this success criterion when used according to specification.

Specifically:

This "until user agents" condition has been met. Therefore, this checkpoint is no longer required.

MS 2 – 9 – Avoid using the FONT SIZE markup in your web pages or change the size to relative units.

Guideline 1.4.4 Resize text: Except for captions and images of texttext can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality. (Level AA)


Additional Notes:

Guideline 1.4.5 Images of Text: If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text except for the following: (Level AA)

  • Customizable: The image of text can be visually customized to the user’s requirements;

  • Essential: A particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.

Note: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.

Guideline 1.4.6 Contrast (Enhanced): The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1, except for the following: (Level AAA)

  • Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least4.5:1;

  • Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.

  • Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.

Guideline 1.4.8 Visual Presentation: For the visual presentation of blocks of text, a mechanism is available to achieve the following: (Level AAA)

  1. Foreground and background colors can be selected by the user.

  2. Width is no more than 80 characters or glyphs (40 if CJK).

  3. Text is not justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins).

  4. Line spacing (leading) is at least space-and-a-half within paragraphs, and paragraph spacing is at least 1.5 times larger than the line spacing.

  5. Text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent in a way that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text on a full-screen window.

MS 2 – 10 – Provide a Search form within your site.

Guideline 2.4.5 Multiple Ways: More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process. (Level AA)

Guideline 3.3.5 Help: Context-sensitive help is available. (Level AAA)

This checkpoint does not directly map to any WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion and is not required. Some aspects relate to Success Criterion 2.4.2 (Level AA), Success Criterion 2.4.5 (Level AA), Success Criterion 3.3.3 (Level AA), and Success Criterion 3.3.5 (Level AAA).

MS 2 – 11 – Layout must be navigable even if the page style is turned off. Guideline 1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence: When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined. (Level A)

3.2.3 Consistent Navigation: Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user. (Level AA)

Conformance Requirement 4: Only Accessibility-Supported Ways of Using Technologies: Only accessibility-supported ways of using technologies are relied upon to satisfy the success criteria. Any information or functionality that is provided in a way that is not accessibility supported is also available in a way that is accessibility supported. (See Understanding accessibility support.) Understanding Conformance Requirement 4

Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference: If technologies are used in a way that is not accessibility supported, or if they are used in a non-conforming way, then they do not block the ability of users to access the rest of the page. In addition, the Web page as a whole continues to meet the conformance requirements under each of the following conditions: Understanding Conformance Requirement 5

  1. when any technology that is not relied upon is turned on in a user agent,

  2. when any technology that is not relied upon is turned off in a user agent, and

  3. when any technology that is not relied upon is not supported by a user agent

In addition, the following success criteria apply to all content on the page, including content that is not otherwise relied upon to meet conformance, because failure to meet them could interfere with any use of the page:

  • Guideline 1.4.2 – Audio Control,

  • Guideline 2.1.2 – No Keyboard Trap,

  • Guideline 2.3.1 – Three Flashes or Below Threshold, and

  • Guideline 2.2.2 – Pause, Stop, Hide.

MS 2 – 12 – Website content must appear clearly even when colors are turned off.

Guideline 1.4.1 Use of Color: Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element. (Level A)

Note: This success criterion addresses color perception specifically. Other forms of perception are covered in Guideline 1.3 including programmatic access to color and other visual presentation coding.

Guideline 1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics: Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound. (Level A)

Note: For requirements related to color, refer to Guideline 1.4.

MS 2-13 Provide descriptive titles for every page. Guideline 2.4.2 Page Titled: Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose. (Level A)
MS 2-14 Page style must be consistent all throughout the website.

Guideline 1.3.1 Info and Relationships: Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A)

Guideline 3.2.4 Consistent Identification: Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently. (Level AA)

MS 2-15 Provide enough contrast between foreground and background color combinations.

Guideline 1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum): The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for the following: (Level AA)

  • Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1;

  • Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.

  • Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.

Guideline 1.4.6 Contrast (Enhanced): The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1, except for the following: (Level AAA)

  • Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least4.5:1;

  • Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.

  • Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.

MS 2-16 Avoid background sounds or music that may distract the user’s focus on the content.

1.4.7 Low or No Background Audio: For prerecorded audio-only content that (1) contains primarily speech in the foreground, (2) is not an audio CAPTCHA or audio logo, and (3) is not vocalization intended to be primarily musical expression such as singing or rapping, at least one of the following is true: (Level AAA)

  • No Background: The audio does not contain background sounds.
  • Turn Off: The background sounds can be turned off.
  • 20 dB: The background sounds are at least 20 decibels lower than the foreground speech content, with the exception of occasional sounds that last for only one or two seconds.
    Note: Per the definition of “decibel,” background sound that meets this requirement will be approximately four times quieter than the foreground speech content.

Notes:

MS – Maturity Stage

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Checkpoint 2.0 data were taken from the W3C Official Website (December 11, 2008 or the latest version).

Analysis of Comparison

  1. Manila ICT/PWAG Web Design Accessibility Recommendations (WDAR) only has a total of 23 checkpoints including four additional checkpoints.
  2. WCAG 2.0 has a total of 61 checkpoints distributed into four Principles. Principle 1 (Perceivable) has four Guidelines and 22 Checkpoints. Principle 2 (Operable) has four Guidelines and 20 Checkpoints, Principle 3 (Understandable) has three Guidelines and 17 Checkpoints and Principle 4 (Robust) has two Guidelines and two Checkpoints.
  3. WCAG 2.0 Success Criterion Level A has 24 Checkpoints. Success Criterion Level AA has 11 Checkpoints. Success Criterion Level AAA has 26 Checkpoints.
  4. Out of the 61 checkpoints, 39 of those checkpoints have a near equal or satisfied the Manila ICT/WDAR checkpoints or 64% compatibility.
  5. Based on Success Criterion Levels, WDAR has a near equivalent Checkpoints in the following: Level A – 18; Level AA – 10 ; Level AAA – 11.
  6. Of the 22 WCAG 2.0 checkpoints with no equivalent WDAR, 5 are audio related recordings including sign language; 1 is web standard issue; 13 is about keyboard inputs, error trapping and prevention and 3 for language related issues.
  7. Eleven WCAG 2.0 checkpoints satisfied two or more WDAR checkpoints.
  8. Non-conforming checkpoints/recommendations are as follows:
         a. Manila ICT/WDAR recommends "D" link while WCAG 2.0 totally dropped "longdesc" or "D" link attributes.
         b. Manila ICT/WDAR does NOT recommend the use of frames while WCAG do but with limitations.
         c. Manila ICT/WDAR recommends the use of Accessibility Statement while WCAG 2.0 adds this as optional.
         d. Manila ICT/WDAR recommends the use of Accesskeys while WCAG 2.0 totally dropped it. 
         e. Manila ICT/WDAR Maturity Stage 1-6 has NO near equal WCAG 2.0 checkpoint.